Does a caravan need an MOT?

No, caravans do not need an MOT.

It is however the owner's responsibility to make sure the caravan is safe to travel on the road.

An annual service is recommended, this is when a vehicle has an in-depth mechanical assessment to ensure that everything is as it should be. A service will check that the gas, electrical and water systems are working and will also look at wearable parts, such as breakaway cables, and brake pads.

https://www.caravanguard.co.uk/news/the-importance-of-an-annual-caravan-service-18653/